高考閱讀理解之細節理解題 姓Ming:______________ 班級:____________________ Ti醒語: 1.確定題干,到原文快速Sou索相關信息,對信息進行處理! 2.Ji主觀臆斷! 3.細節題是高考考查的重點,Zhan閱讀的50%,應重視。 【考例分析1】For many parents, raising a teenager is like fighting a long war, but years go by without any clear winner. Like a border conflict between neighboring countries, the parent-teen war is about boundaries: Where is the line between what I control and what you do? (2010·Hu北卷·B篇) Why does the author compare the parent-teen war to a border conflict? A. Both can continue for generations B. Both are about where to draw the line C. Neither has any clear winner D. Neither can be put to an end 【Kao例分析2】The researchers studied cultural differences in the recognition of facial expressions by recording the eye movements of 13 Western Caucasian and 13 East Asian people while they observed pictures of expressive faces and put them into categories: happy, sad, surprised, fearful, disgusted, angry, or neutral. They compared how accurately participants read those facial expressions using their particular eye movement strategies. (2010·Hu南卷·C) What were the people asked to do in the study? A. To make a face at each other. B. To get their faces impressive. C. To classify some face pictures. D. To observe the researchers? faces. 【Kao例分析3】Confucius suggested Rule as a principle for the conduct of “Do not do to others what you would not want others to you. ”He assumed that all men were equal at birth, though some potential than others, and that it was knowledge that set men apart. Socrates focused on individual, and thought that the greatest purpose of man was to seek wisdom. He believed that some had more potential to develop their reason than others did. Like Confucius, he believed that the superior class should rule the inferior(Xia層的)classes. (2010·江西Juan·C) Socrates shared with Confucius the idea that . A. all men were equal when they were born B. the lower classes should be ruled by the upper class C. the purpose of man was to seek freedom and wisdom D. people should not ask others to do what they did not want to 【Kao例分析4】Since Beijing's first ski resort was opened ten years ago, the sport has enjoyed astonishing increase. There are now more than a dozen resorts. Clothes markets in the city have added bright colored ski suits to their winter collections. Mr. Wei, a manager of a newly-opened ski resort in Beijing, sees the growth of an industry that could soon lead Chinese to head for the ski resorts of Europe. In recent years ski resorts offering natural snow have opened in China. But many are in faraway areas of the country and can't really match the equipment and services of some ski resorts in Europe. (2010·Quan國卷II·C) Why are some Chinese likely to go skiing in Europe? A. To visit more ski areas. B. To ski on natural snow. C. For a large collection of ski suits. D. For better services and equipment. 【Kao例分析5】He longs for conversations with an editor who will help him turn his good ideas into great ones. He wants someone to get excited about what he's doing and to help him turn his story idea upside down and inside out, exploring the best ways to report it. He wants to be more valuable for your paper. That's what you want for him, too, isn't it? (2010·Bei京卷·B) What does the reporter want most from his editors in their talks? A. Finding the news value of his stories. B. Giving him financial support. C. Helping him to find issues. D. Improving his good ideas 【Kao例分析6】But Parbati doesn?t catch elephants just for fun. “My work,” she says, “is to rescue man from the elephants, and to keep the elephants safe from man.” And this is exactly what Parbati has been doing for many years. Increasingly, the Indian elephant is angry: for many years, illegal hunters have attacked it and its home in the jungle has been reduced to small pieces of land. It is now fighting back. Whenever wild elephants enter a tea garden or a village, Parbati is called to guide the animals back to the jungle before they can kill. (2010·Shang海卷·A) For Parbati, catching elephants is mainly to . A. get long lasting excitement B. keep both man and elephants safe C. send them back to the jungle D. make the angry elephants tame 【Kao例分析7】Parbati hasn?t always lived in the jungle. After a happy c hildhood hunting with her father, she was sent to boarding school in the city. But Parbati never got used to being there and many years later she went back to her old life. “Life in the city is too dull. Catching elephants is an adventure and the excitemen t lasts for days after the chase,” she says. (2010·Shang海卷·A) Before Parbati studied in a boarding school, ______________. A. she spent her time hunting with her father B. she learned how to sing love songs C. she had already been called an elephant princess D. she was taught how to hunt tigers 【Kao例分析8】It is hardly surprising that clothing manufacturers (Sheng產商)follow certain uniform standards for various features(Te征)of clothes. What seems strange , however, is that the standard adopted for women is the opposite of the one for men. Take a look at the way your clothes button. Men?s clothes tend to button from the right, and women?s form the left. Considering most of the world?s population-men and women-are right-handed, the men?s standard would appear to make more sense for women. So why do women?s clothes button from the left? (2010·Zhong慶卷·C) What is surprising about the standard of the clothing industry? A. It has been followed by the industry for over 400 years. B. It is different for men?s clothing and women?s. C. It works better with men than with women. D. It fails to consider right-handed people. 【Kao例分析9】The engineer Camillo Olivetti was 40 years old when he started the company in 1908. At his factory in Ivera, he designed and produced the first I talian typewriter. Today the company?s head office is still in Ivrea, near Turin, but the company is much larger than it was in those days and there are offices all around the world.By 1930 there was a staff of 700 and the company turned out 13,000 machines a year. Some went to customers in Italy, but Olivetti exported more typewriters to other countries. (2010·An徽卷·A) From the text we learn that__________. A. by 1930 Olivetti produced 13,000 typewriters a year B. Olivetti earned more in the 1960s than in the 1950s C. some of Olivetti?s 700 staff regularly visited customers in Italy D. Olivetti set up offices in other countries from the very beginning 【Kao例分析10】After World War Ⅱ, the population of most large American cities decreased; however, the population in many Sun Belt cities increased. Los Angeles and Houston are cities where population shifts(Zhuan移) to and from the city reflect the changing values of American society. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, city residents(Ju民)became wealthier. They had more children so they needed more space. They moved out of their apartments in the city to buy their own homes. They bought houses in the suburbs(Jiao區). (2010·安徽卷·C) Why did American city residents want to live in the suburbs after World War Ⅱ? A. Because older American cities were dying. B. Because they were richer and needed more space. C. Because cities contained the worst pare of society. D. Because they could hardly afford a live in the city. 【Kao例分析11】When I was growing up in America, I was ashamed of my mother?s Ch inese English. Because of her English, she was often treated unfairly. People in department stores, at banks, and at restaurants did not take her seriously, did not give her good service, pretended not to understand her, or even acted as if they did not hear her. (2010·Guang東卷·A) Why was the author?s mother poorly served? A. She was unable to speak good English. B. She was often misunderstood. C. She was not clearly heard. D. She was not very polite. W 【Kao例分析12】My mother has realized the limitations of her English as well. When I was fifteen, she used to have me call people on phone to pretend I was she. I was forced to ask for information or even to yell at people who had been rude to her. One time I had to call her stockbroker (Gu票經紀人).I said in an adolescent voice that was not very convincing, “This is Mrs. Tan.” (2010·Guang東卷·A) From Paragraph 2, we know that the author was . A. good a pretending B. rude to the stockbroker C. ready to help her mother D. unwilling to phone for her mother 【Kao例分析13】The little baby whale——actually as big as our boat——was obviously stuck and could not move. The mother dived under the water and came up suddenly, making big whirlpools(Zuo渦) and waves. “She?s trying to help her baby, but on the wrong side,” my father said. At this point, my father moved our boat in a semicircle to the other side and, heading the boat towards the baby whale, pushed it gently. (2010·Hu北卷·A) The mother whale failed to help her baby because__________. A. she had stayed in the polluted water for too long B. the whirlpools she had made were not big enough C. she had no other whales around to turn to for help D. the waves pushed her baby in the wrong direction 【Kao例分析14】Fashion designer Angela Barnard, who runs her own fashion business in London, said older women were much more affected by celebrity(Ming流) style than in previous years .She said, “When people see stars such as Judi Dench and Helen Mirren looking attractive and fashionable in their sixties, they want to follow them. Older women are much more aware of celebrities .There?s also the boom in TV programmes showing people how they can change their look, and many of my older customers do yoga to stay in shape well in their fifties. (2010·Hu北卷·C) What can we learn about old women in terms of fashion? A. They are often ignored by fashion designers. B. They are now more easily influenced by stars. C. They are regarded as pioneers in the latest fashion. D. They are more interested in clothes because of their old age. 【Kao例分析15】Andy rode slowly on his way to school, day-dreaming about the fishing trip that his father had promised him. He was so busy dreaming about all the fish he would catch that he was unaware of everything else around him.He rode along until a strange around drew him to the present. He came to a stop and looked curiously up to the heavens. What he saw shocked him. A huge swarm of bees filled the sky like clack cloud and the buzzing mass seemed to be heading angrily towards him. (2010·Jiang西卷·A) Why did Andy fail to notice the swarm of bees earlier? A. He was riding to school. B. He was listening to a strange sound. C. He was going fishing with his father. D. He was lost in the thought of the fishing trip. 【Kao例分析16】Every day we experience one of the wonders of the world around us without even realizing it. It is not the amazing complexity of television. Nor the impressive technology of transport. The universal wonder we share and experience is our ability to make noises with our mouths, and so transmit ideas and thoughts to each other…s minds. This ability comes so naturally that we tend to forget what a miracle(Qi跡)it is. (2010·江西卷·E) According to the passage, the wonder we take for granted is . A. our ability to use language B. the miracle of technology C. the amazing power of nature D. our ability to make noises with mouth 【Kao例分析17】It was a village in India. The people were poor. However, they were not unhappy. After all, their forefathers had lived in the same way for centuries. Then one day, some visitors from the city arrived. They told the villagers there were some people elsewhere who liked to eat frog?s legs. However, they did not have enough frogs of their own, and so they wanted to buy frogs from other places. (2010·Liao寧卷·A) From paragraph 1 we learn that the villagers __________. A. worked very hard for centuries B. dreamed of having a better life C. were poor but somewhat content D. lived a different life from their forefathers 【Kao例分析18】This seemed like money for nothing. There were millions of frogs in the fields around, and they were no use to the villagers. All they had to do was catch them. Agreement was reached, and the children were sent into the fields to catch frogs. Every week a truck arrived to collect the catch and hand over the money. For the first time, the people were able to dream of a better future. But the dream didn?t last long. (2010·Liao寧卷·A) Why did the villagers agree to sell frogs? A. the frogs were easy money B. They needs money to buy medicine C. they wanted to please the visitors D. the frogs made too much noise 【Kao例分析19】Fear plays no part in this latest problem. “I?m not afraid I?ll lose my children. I won?t lose my children. We live together, and nothing, nothing,” she repeats, her voice rising when speaking to John?s lawyer, “will stop me from being with my children. A law? Year, right. Don?t disturb me when it comes to my children. You are never going to win. If John wants to see them, I cannot stop him. He?s their father—I want them to see him! However, his visit in his present condition will disturb the children?s stable (Wen定的) life.” (2010·Si川卷·E) According to Jane in the first paragraph, the law . A. can?t take her children away from her B. can?t do anything with the cas e C. will best settle the problem D. will disturb her children 【Kao例分析20】ECP has created national standards for healthy, environmentally (Huan境方面) clever and affordable homes which are called, the Green Communities Standards. These standards include water keeping, energy saving and the use of environmentally friendly building materials. Meeting the standards increases housing construction costs by 2%, which is rapidly paid back by lower running costs. Even the positioning of a window to get most daylight can help save energy. (2010·Si川卷·B) What is an advantage of the buildings meeting the Green Communities Standards? A.Lower running costs. B. Costing less in construction. C. Less air to be lost in hot days. D. Better prices for homeless people.
淺析高中英語閱讀中的細節理解題【摘Yao】文章對英語閱讀能力的培養進行細節分析:Bao括直接細節理解題和間接細節理解題。做細Jie理解題時,大多數學生易出現的問題是閱讀速Du太慢,缺乏一定的快速閱讀技巧;必須培養學生快Su獲取信息的能力,并通過閱讀過程學習和掌握一Ding的的閱讀技巧和技能。 【關鍵詞】Ying語;閱讀;細節理解;策略 一、Zhi接細節理解題和間接細節理解題 英語Yue讀能力的培養是中學英語教學的重要目標之一,Er所謂閱讀理解能力即是指對文章的整體和局部Xin息的理解和掌握情況。整體指的是文章的主Zhi要義、作者的態度、意圖等。局部則是指分San于文中的特定信息。此類答案需要跨段收Ji信息,題目信息與原文信息表達方式不一Zhi,主要考查考生對文章或某段落中某一特定事實信Xi的捕捉和理解能力。通常包括直接細節理解題和間Jie細節理解題。 直接細節理解題答案與原Wen掛鉤,在文中可直接找到答案。但往往與原文中De語句并非一模一樣,而是用不同的詞語或句型結構Biao達相同的意思。 間接細節理解題需要Tong過有關詞語和句子的轉換,利用主要事實、圖表、Tu形來獲取信息,然后利用因果類比、時間空間等關Xi將零碎的細節經過一系列加工整理,方能Zuo出正確的判斷。此類試題在高考中占大多數,Qi常見的命題方式有: (1)、特殊疑問句形Shi。 以 what, who, when, where, which, how much, how many Deng引出 問題。(2)、是非題。通常以 true/false，not true/false Ti問以 及 according to the text Kai頭 (3)、填空題。通常涉及與主題有 關的事Shi和細節。(4)、就文中數字、排序、Shi圖等提問。 二、應對策略 1、做細節理解題Shi，大多數學生易出現的問題是閱讀速度太慢， 缺Fa一定的快速閱讀技巧；考生主要培養自己快速獲Qu信息的能 力。細節的直接辨認不要求讀Zhe對客觀的事實做出解釋或判斷，只 要求從閱讀Cai料中直接獲取信息，同時還要求讀者記住重Yao的細 節，在必要的時候(做出判斷、推論或Jie論的時候)，能準確而迅速 地將它們回憶起來。Jie答此類試題時，不必通篇細看原文，而Ying采 取“帶著問題去找答案的方法” ，先從問Ti中抓住關鍵性詞語，然 后以此為線索，運用略讀Ji查讀的技巧快速在文章中尋找與此問題 相Guan的段落、語句，仔細品味，對照比較，確定答案。You時還需要 詞句意的轉換、 理解， 將Huo取的信息用同義或近義的形式復述出來。 以直Jie信息理解題為例，如 senior english for china student’ s book 2b unit 7 which would make you infected with hiv according to the passage? a. shaking hands with a girl who has aids. b. eating with someone living with aids c. playing computer games with a friend who has aids d. receiving an infected blood transfusion. Ci題可從文中第二段第二行直接獲取，此段介紹了Gan染 aids 三種 途徑。 2、要快速地Bian認和記憶事實或細節就需要恰當使用查Yue的方法和 技巧。查閱是讀者對材料有Suo熟悉的情況下進行的。它的特點是帶 著問題去Xun求答案，它往往與略讀綜合使用，要求考生能Li解原文 中某個短語或句子的含義，將問題De信息與原文中相關的信息進行 一系列的加工、Zheng理及概括，而后得出結論。常以間接細Jie理解題 的形式出現，如 student’s book 2a unit 7： what can be concluded from the passage？ a. people with aids are all bad and dangerous. b. aids patients need care and understanding. c. xiaohua will be able to realize her dream finally d. though expensive, the medicine can cure aids patients of their disease. Tong過對文章最后兩段的細節信息的整理加工Ke得出答案為 b。 3、略讀材料，大概了解全文，Zhang握其中心或主旨 按文章的體裁，如記敘Wen、說明文和議 論文 等及作者寫作的組 織Mo式和有關的信息詞，如 for example, first, second Deng。預 測應該到何處尋求自己所需要的事實。段落De組織形式常見的有時 間性段落、空間型段落、Lie舉型段落、例證型段落、程序型段落和 對比Xing段落等。如時間型段落和空間型段落要憑表達時間He空間的 信息詞，按時間和空間的Zu織形式進行查讀，尋找有關細節。以事 實排序Ti為例，做此類題時可采用找頭找尾法及對比干擾項De做 法，逐個排除錯誤選項。 4、將精力Fang在你所需要的細節上快速通篇跳讀，眼睛自左Zhi右， 自上而下呈 z 型掃讀，直到找到Han細節的句子時，就要放慢速度， 仔細核對，比較Nei容，直至找到答案。如數據 計算 題，此類Shi題 一般要求考生能根據閱讀材料中給Chu的數據，通過分析計算得出結 論，解題關鍵Shi要善于捕捉有關數字信息以及他們的邏輯Guan系，確 定計算方法。 5、了解細節題干擾項的Te點，也能有助于提高答題的正確率。一 般情況下，Gan擾項有以下五個特點：(1)是原文信息，但不Shi題目 要求的內容。(2)符合常識但不是文Zhang內容。(3)與原句的內容極為 相似，只Shi在程度上有些變動。(4)在意思上與原Wen大相徑庭，甚 至完全相反。(5)部分正確、部Fen錯誤。 值得一提的是，有時原文中的信息可能Zhi是一個短語甚至一個單 詞，因此需要我們Zai閱讀中格外仔細才能捕捉到真正有用的信Xi。 總之，閱讀教學不僅僅是讓學生學習閱讀Cai料中的語言知識，更 重要的是讓學生Huo取其中的語言信息，并通過閱讀過程學習He掌握 一定的的閱讀技巧和技能。 參考文Xian 林瓊.高中閱讀理解能力教學Chu探[j].中小學 英語 教學與研 究，2003(12).
篇一:高一英語閱讀理解事實細節專練 Gao一英語閱讀理解. 一. 理解事Shi細節. (1)A doctor was once teaching a class of medical students at a famous hospital in Edinburgh. An injured man was brought in, and the doctor turned to one of the students and asked him, ―What‘s wrong with this man?‖ ― I don‘t know, sir ― the student answered. ― Shall I examine him and find out?‖ ― There‘s no need to examine him‖, said the doctor, ―You should know without asking questions. He has hurt his right knee. Didn‘t you notice the way he walked ? He hurt it by burning it in the fire. You see his trouser leg is burnt away at the knee. This is Monday morning. Yesterday was fine, but on Saturday the roads were wet and muddy. The man‘s trousers are muddy all over. The man fell down on Saturday night. 1 The doctor then turned to the man and said, ― You had youra public house and drank too much. You got wet and muddy on the way home. Because you had drunk too much, you fell on the fire and burnt your knee. Is that right ?‖ ―Yes, sir.‖ said the man. 1. The medical students were having a lesson ______________. A. in a classroom B. at the library C. at a well-known hospital D. a medical school 2. The man hurt his knee_______________. A. on Saturday nightB. yesterday C. on Monday morningD. on Friday night 3. The man burnt his knee _______________. A. when he was on his way to the hospital B. because he had drank too much and fell on the fire C. because he was cold D. because he was ill 4. WAGE in the fourth paragraph means_______________. A. holiday B. money paid every week C. cars D. servants 5. The doctor was good at _______________. 2 A. learning from others B. taking care of others C. watching and thinkingD. teaching c a b b c ( 2 )Thomas Adams discovered bubble gum ( Pao泡糖 ) in the 1870s. He was an American. He wanted to find a use for chicle(Tang膠樹膠). Chicle is a Spanish word for sticky water that comes from one kind of Mexican tree .Mr Adams wanted to make rubber from chicle. Mr Adams worked in his home while he tried to find a way to make the chicle stronger. Hisson, Horatio, also helped him now and then. One day, young Horatio began to chew the chicle while he watched his father work. It did not taste very good, but Horatio enjoyed chewing it. Then the young boy began to blow bubbles with the new chicle which his father had made. Mr Adams had discovered bubble gum by accident. Mr Adams gave up trying to find a way to make rubber from chicle. Instead , he wanted to try and sell the new gum that he had made. He thought other people might like the taste too. He began to see his new kind of chicle as candy. In no time, children everywhere began chewing bubble gum. 1. Where was Thomas Adams from ? A. Canada B. The United StatesC. Europe D. England 3 2. Who was Horatio Adams? A. Thomas's father B. Thomas's wifeC. Thomas's brother D. Thomas's son 3. What was Thomas Adams trying to make ? A. A new kind of rubber . B. A new kind of chicle. C. A new kind of candy. D. Electric light. 4. Why did Thomas Adams want to sell bubble gum ? A. His son enjoyed chewing it . B. He thought many people would like it. C. He could not make strong rubber from chicle. D. all of above 5. Which of these sentences is not true? A. Horatio helped his father. B. Thomas Adams made rubber from chicle by accident. C. Horatio was the first person to chew bubble gum. D. Thomas Adams never made rubber. Bdadb (3)You can see a bell tower that leans (Qing斜 ) in the town of Pisa, Italy. What does it lean against ? Nothing. It's called the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and it's been leaning more ever since it was built about 700 years ago. 4 Some say that long ago the great Italian scientist Galileo dropped weights from the tower to learn how fast things fall. Even then , the tower was a leaning tower. And today , little by little, one side of the tower keeps on sinking into the soft ground. The Leaning Tower tips (Qing斜 ) about an inch every nine years. The farther it leans out of line, the faster it tips. You can climb stairs to the top of the tower and see the bells that once called people to a nearby church. But no one rings the bell now. The clang(Zuo鏘聲 ) might make the tower fall faster. The government of Italy once offered a prize for the best plan to keep the tower from falling any farther. Some people have ideas, but nothing has been done yet. If the Leaning Tower ever falls, it will be the end of what some people say is one of the seven wonders of the modern world. 1. The Leaning Tower ___________. A. because famous right after it was built B. leans against tower C. was built about seven centuries ago D. no longer tips today 2. What do you know about Galileo? 5 A. He was a great physicist who built the Tower. B. He was well known for designing the Tower. C. He drew a very famous experiment on the Tower. D. He designed a good plan to adjust the Tower. 3. Nobody rings the bells in the Tower now because_______________. A. there is something wrong with the bells B. people in the town are annoyed by the ringing bells. C. nobody needs to be called to the church D. the clang might make the Tower tip faster 4. Which of the followings is NOT mentioned in the passage? A. The reason why the Leaning Tower is leaning. B. The condition of the Leaning Tower C. The plans that people offer to prevent the Tower from leaning. D. The measures that the government has taken to keep the Tower from falling. 5. We can learn from the passage that _______________. A. people like the Leaning Tower so they have done nothing to keep it from leaning B. it is very difficult to stop the tower from leaning 6 C. even if the Tower falls , the seven wonders will still exist D.the ccdab Italian government didn't offer any prize for the best plan (4)Charlie was sent to repair the telephone in a(Zhuan 載 于:wWW.xlTkWJ.Com Xiao 龍文 檔 網:高中英語閱讀理解 Shi實細節題) college. He stopped his car outside the gate and walked through a wide boulevard while a professor and his students were standing around the college flagpole in front of the teaching building. He stopped to watch what they were doing there. We need to know how high the flagpole is, said the professor to his students . Who has a better way to calculate it ? them all. Charlie began to laugh and came up to the flagpole . 'Watch! said the young man. He laid the flagpole on the ground and measured it with a tape and then said, Exactly 15.12 meters. Then he replaced the pole and walked away. What a silly idea! the professor said angrily . We wonder 7 how height it is. But he gave us the length! 1. Charlie was a _____________. A. teacher B. professorC. repair man D. postman 2. Charlie went to the college____________. A. by bus B. on foot C. by bike D. by car 3. The professor was going to ___________. A. put the flagpole down B. teach his students to calculate the flagpole's height C. make a new flagpole D. show his students how to measure the flagpole 4. The underlined word negated means___________. A. encourage B. not agree C. praise D. know 5.Charlie laughed because____________. A. he was good with math B. he thought the professor was silly C. he could easily know the flagpole's height D.he cbdbc knew more than the professor (5)Each year on December 10, the Alfred Nobel Foundation(Nuo貝爾基金) presents six prizes. These prizes 8 are named after Alfred Nobel, the man who invented dynamite(Huo藥). It was Mr Nobel ?s idea to create(Chuang造)the prizes. During his life, Mr Nobel made a lot of money from his invention. He put his money in a bank, and the money earned more money through interest(Li息) from the bank. The money grew to be a very large amount. Mr Nobel decided to use his money to help scientists, artists, and people who worked to help others around the world. He created the Nobel Prizes to do this. The prizes set up by Mr Noble include physics, medicine, chemistry, literature, and peace.These five Nobel Prizes were first given out in 1901. Later, the Central Bank of Sweden(Rui 典) made the Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic(Jing 濟) Science in1968 to celebrate(Qing祝) the bank‘s 300th year of business. All of the prizes are handed out in Stockholm(Si 德哥爾摩) except for the Peace Prize, which is presented in Oslo(Ao斯陸). Each person who receives a Nobel Prize is given a cash prize, a medal, and a special paper which explains the prize the person won. The amount of money that each person receive is calculated (Ji算)from the interest earned from all of Me Nobel ?s money which is still in the bank.. This 9 interest is divided equally between the five prize winners in physics, medicine, chemistry, literature, and peace. The Central Bank of Sweden then pays an equal amount to the winner of the prize in Economics. 1. The Nobel Prizes are presented ________ A. at different time B. In December C. Every two yearsD. Every six years 2. The main idea of the second paragraph is _____ A. how many prizes Mr Nobel set up B. why Nobel Prize was created C. what each prize winner will receive D. where the prizes were presented 3. Mr Nobel set up ______prizes at first. A. 5 B. 6 C. 7 D. we don‘t know 4. The Nobel Prize of ______are made and paid by Central Bank of Sweden. A. EconomicsB. Medicine C. LiteratureD. Physics 5. The winners of the Nobel Prize will receive these except_______ A. A medal B. Money C. An invention D. A special paper Keys are : B B A A C Pian二:高中英語閱讀理解方法之細節題的解題技巧 10 Ying語閱讀理解---事實細節題的解題技巧 Suo謂細節題，是指原文提到了某事物、現象Huo理論，題干 針對原文具體敘述本身發Wen。 細節事實理解題主要考查考 生對Wen章中某一些特定細節或文章的重要實事De理解能力。 它一般包括直接理解題和語義Li解題兩種。直接理解題的答 案Yu原文直接掛鉤，從閱讀材料中可以找到。這種題難Du低， 只要學生讀懂文章，就能De分，屬于低層次題。而語義理解 題須將Ti目信息與原文相關信息進行語義上的轉換才能得 Chu結論。這類題目要求考生能理解原文中某個短語Huo句子的 含義，從而找到與答案意Si相同的詞語和句子。 【題型特點】這Lei試題旨在考查考生對事實細節的確定。 Zhe類試題一般只針對文章中某一特定的細節，也Ke能涉及若 干個細節，或者針對文章的主Yao事實，或利用圖形圖表或地 圖Lai表示信息等。此類試題一般又可分為兩類:一是Zhi接理 解題，答案可在原文中直接找到;二Shi詞義轉換題，答案是原 文中有關詞Yu和句子的轉換，而不能在原文中直接找到。 【Ming題形式】這類題主要是針對who, what, which, why, how, when, whereDeng來提問的。如: 1. Which of the following statements is true/NOT true/false, according to the passage? 2. Which of the following statements is (not) correct? 3. In the passage, which of the following is mentioned / not 11 mentioned? 4. All the following statements are not true except ______. 5. All the statements are true except______. 6. Choose the right order of the events given in the passage? 7. When/Where did the story happen? Liao解這些題目的設計特點對正確解題有一定幫助。一Ban來 說，設計這些題目時，編題者常常會Huan用不同的詞、詞組、短語、句型、或其它不同De表達方式來表達文段中某一相應的詞、Ci組、短語、句型或表達方式所表達的同Yi意思，以此來考察讀者對文段中某一信息的理解。Jie答這類閱讀理解題尤其要求我們熟練掌握所學Fan圍內的詞匯、短語、句型及其意義和用法。 2、Ci性或者語態的變化。 3、語言簡化。 4、Zheng話反說。 干擾項也是以文章Zhong的某個細節設題，若不仔細辨別， Hen容易把它當成正確選項。 1.Jiang原文內容擴大或縮小。2、把未然當已然。3、無Zhong生有。 4、偷換概念。5、文Bu對題。 提醒: 1(仔細讀題干，Que定考察什么，到原文快速搜索相關信 Xi，對信息進行處理～ 12 2(Ji主觀臆斷～ 3(細節題是高考考查的Zhong點，占閱讀的50%，應重視。 閱Du水平的提高不是一兩天的閱讀就可以見效的。想要Ti 高閱讀能力，一是要培養良好的閱Du行為習慣;如:要用眼 光看，不要用手Zhi去點;要默讀，不要小聲讀。二是要積累 Da量的詞匯，把閱讀中的高頻難詞熟記，每次Yue讀后要整理 好生詞，然后記住其意思。San是要廣泛地做 課后閱讀，堅持每Tian讀1-2篇文章。四是不要一遇到生詞 就Cha字典，要先猜其意義，等做完題目后再查字典，Yi免影 響閱讀速度。 【Shi例分析】下面是選自全國的一篇高考閱讀題。Duan文后 面的閱讀理解題的設計采用Liao替換詞匯(單詞、詞組或短語)、 替換句Xing、轉換表達形式等命題方式。我們通過對這些例題 De分析，具體了解一些閱讀理解題的設計特點和解Ti的基本 方法。 The basenji is a central African hunting dog. It comes from a country called Chad, which is north of the Central African Republic. The basenji was well-known as the “silent dog” because for centuries no basenjis had ever been known to bark (Fei). Then at a dog show in London in 1953, a basenji actually barked.As well as being clever, basenjis are known for their 13 natural courage and are still popular hunting dogs in Africa. But in America people keep them mainly because they are gentle and full of fun. The basenji has an unusual habit; it washes itself all over like a cat. It is a middle-sized dog, 16 or 17 inches higher from the shoulder. It weighs about 20 pounds. A basenji’s coat is short and silky. It may be brown, white, or gold, or a mixture of these three colours. 1. Basenjis were first found ______. A. in Africa, Europe and America B. in both Africa and America C. in central Africa D. in North Africa 2. What made basenjis so special? A. They were funny enough to make people laugh. B. One of them barked at a dog show in London. C. They were a true friend of man. D. They were born quiet dogs. 3. Americans like basenjis because they are ______. A. pleasant B. pretty C. cleanD. quiet 4. In what way are basenjis like cats? A. They make gentle sounds instead of barking. B. They are fond of people and look like cats. C. They clean themselves all over. 14 D. They have short, silky fur. 5. Basenjis are good hunters because they are ______. A. strongB. fearlessC. the right colourD. the right weight 【Da案解析】 1. 該題題干的意Si可以理解成 Basenjis’ native country is…，Qi信息聯系點在第一自然段的第1句。根據這一句Suo 傳達的信息，我們可以排除1A、BLiang個選項，因為它們均 大于文段中Suo給的信息的范圍 (The basenji is a central African hunting dog)。DXuan項與第一段的第2 north 這個Ci， 但 North Africa Shi“北非”，在“非洲”北部;而 north of the Central African Republic Shi“中非共和國的北部”，在“中非” Bei部，它們表示的范圍(或概念)不一致，也可Yi排除，因此， 可以確定C選項是正Que的。該題題干的設計采用了換句型的 Fang法，即用 Basenjis were first found in central Africa Biao達 The Basenji is a central African hunting dog De意思。 2. 該題可以理解為 Why were Basenjis so special，Qi信息 聯系點在第一自然段的第3句。Gen據這一句所提供的信息， 我們基本Ke以確定D句。根據這一句所提供的信息，Wo們基 本可以確定選項是正確的，Yin為 …because… 表達了主從句 Zhi間的因果關系，而A、B、C三個選項與Wen段中的信息聯 系點沒有什么關系，因Ci，都可以排除。該題的設計同時用 了Huan詞和換表達形式兩種方法，即，用 special Qu代 was 15 well-known，Yong quiet 取代 silent;用 was born quiet Qu代 had never been known to bark。 3. Gai題與文段的信息連接點在第二段的第2句，題目De設計采用了換詞的手法,because表Shi主從句之間的因果關系，但題干用 Americans like Basenjis Ti代了文段中的 In America people keep Basenjis，Ji用 Americans 取代了(In America)people，Yong like 取代了 keep，用 pleasant Qu代了 gentle and full of fun。Zai四個選項中，B、C兩個選項與文段中De信息點 gentle and full of fun De意思無關;D選項只與信息點的部分意思D(gentle)Xiang關，因此，這三個選項都可以排除。A選項可Yi完整地概括 gentle and full of fun Quan部意思，因此，正確選項應該是A。 4. Gai題問的是“Basenjis在那一方面象貓”，Qi信息連接點在第二段的第3句。該題的She計采用了換詞的方法，即C選項 They clean themselves all over Zhong的 clean 取代了文段中 It washes itself all over”Zhong的“washes”，符合題意，而A、 B、DSan個選項的意思均與該信息點的意思無關，Yin此均可以排除。 5.該題的信息連Jie點在第二段的第1句。題目的設計采用了換詞、Huan表達形式的方法。文段中的“…Basenjis are known for their natural courage and are still popular ”Ju。題目的設計采用了換詞、換表達形式的方法。Wen段中的“”實際上可以 16 Li解為“Basenjis are still popular hunting dogs because they are known for their natural courage”，Ji文段中用“and”表示前后兩個并列句Zhi間的因果關系，而題干用“because”Biao示主從句之間的因果關系;此外，題干Zhong的“good hunters”取代了文Duan中的“popular hunting dogs”，BXuan項中的“fearless” 取代了文Duan中的“courage”，符合文意，因此Zheng確，而A、C、D三個選項均與文中相Guan信息點的意思無關，可以排除。 閱讀理Jie題的設計千變萬化，但只要我們加強閱讀實Jian，不斷總結經驗，同時注意題目設計的基本規律，Jiu一定能提高我們的閱讀理解水平和能力。 Pian三:高考閱讀理解細節題 一、細Jie判斷題: (根據題目到文中定位、根據選項判Duan四選項的對錯) 細節題的重點Shi:定位 定位主要從段再到具體的Ju 如何定位:通過中心詞定位到段，再根Ju某一方面具體到句 問題一:如何將問題Jin行解析來定位 問題二:如何Jiang四個選項進行分析來定位 總結:將一Ge句子拆分開 1.which one is ture among the sentences?(Pan斷四個選項的對錯:其中有3個選項存在細節Xing的錯誤，在看選項時務 17 Bi將每個選項可能存在的錯誤找出來在到Wen中進行比對) 2.what can we infer from the passage?(Si個選型那句話是 對的) 課Tang講解訓練 A TEACH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN QUITO IN ECUADOR SUMMARY FACTFILE Price: From ,775, excluding flights Duration: From 2 weeks to 6 months subject to visa requirements Start Dates: All year round—you choose your start and finish dates Requirements: At least aged 17, no qualifications necessary, but you’ll have to be enthusiastic. You’ll need to know a little Spanish to do this project, but if you have no knowledge of Spanish at all, you can combine your project with 1-week intensive (Qiang化的) Spanish course in Quito before starting your project. 56. A member to be admitted into the project should ________. A. know English and Spanish well B. have college 18 certificates C. be over 17 with enthusiasm D. afford a holiday of one year (Zhu意:根據題目直接定位，如何將題目中的關鍵信Xi進 行提取) B A U.S. dad quit his job, giving up a massive salary, after his 10-year-old daughter gave him a 22-point list outlining all the events he missed so far during the year. As the CEO of the $2 trillion global investment fund PIMCO, Mohamed El-Erian shocked the finance industry when he quit in January. El-Erian said it was about a year ago when he was repeatedly asking his daughter to brush her teeth, but she wasn’t listening. When he asked her why, she responded with a list of 22 milestones he had missed: like the first day of school and the first soccer game of the season. “And the school year wasn’t yet over,” El-Erian wrote. “I felt awful and got defensive: I had a good excuse for each missed event! Travel, important meetings, and urgent phone call, sudden to-dos. But it dawned on me that I was missing an infinitely more important point. My work-life balance 19 had gotten out of whack, and the imbalance was hurting my very special relationship with my daughter. I was not making enough time for her.” El-Erian explained he was struggling with the same thing so many parents do—work-life balance. Dads who are quitting their profit-making jobs to improve work-life balance is a subject that is getting more traction as some high-profile executive have recently written about their experiences. Last month, former MongoDB CEO Max Schireson wrote a blog post for Time about his decision to step down from the company’s top job. He wrote that he struggled to make time for his three children because he was flying around half a million kilometres a year for work. “I was not with my kids when our puppy was hit by a car, or when my son had an emergency surgery,” Schireson wrote. On an overnight flight to Texas he woke up in Arizona to discover the plane made an emergency landing and some traumatized crew members had to be replaced. He decided it was time to address his work-life balance. Quitting is something El-Erian and Schireson were 20 financially able to do, but El-Erian recognizes He hopes companies will pay attention to improving work-life balance for their employees. El-Erian now manages “a portfolio of part-time jobs” that don’t require as much travel. He alternates mornings with his wife taking their daughter to school and he often picks her up from school. “So far, it’s been the right decision for me,” he wrote. “I’ m so grateful that this is providing me greater opportunity to experience key moments in my daughter’s life before they’re all too quickly gone.” 60. What can be inferred from the passage?(Mei個選項可 能存在的錯誤是什么?) A. It’s never too late to see children grow up healthily. B. Many working parents can balance their career and family life well. C. CEOs are occupied with work and have no time for their family. D. Parents’ love cannot be replaced by money or jobs. C With only about 1, 000 pandas left in the world, China is desperately trying to clone(Ke隆) the 21 animal and save the endangered species(Wu種). That’s a move similar to what a Texas A & M University researchers have been undertaking for the past five years in a project called “Noah’s Ark”. Noah’s Ark is aimed at collecting eggs, embryos(Pei胎), semen and DNA of endangered animals and storing them in liquid nitrogen. If certain species should die out, Dr. Duane Kraemer, a professor in Texas A & M’s College of Veterinary Medicine, says there would be enough of the basic building blocks to reintroduce the species in the future.It is estimated that as many as 2, 000 species of mammals, birds, reptiles will become extinct in over 100 years. The panda, native only to China, is in danger of becoming extinct in the next 25 years. This week, Chinese scientists said they grew an embryo by introducing cells from a dead female panda into the egg cells of a Japanese white rabbit. They are now trying to implant the embryo into a host animal. The entire procedure could take from three to five years 22 to complete. “The nuclear transfer(He子移植) of one species to another is not easy, and the lack of available panda eggs could be a major problem,” Kraemer believes. “They will probably have to do several hundred transfers to result in one pregnancy (having a baby).(Cai詞) It takes a long time and it’s difficult, but this could be groundbreaking science if it works. They are certainly not putting any live pandas at risk, so it is worth the effort,” adds Kraemer, who is one of the leaders of the Project at Texas A& M, the first-ever attempt at cloning a dog. “They are trying to do something that’s never been done, and this is very similar to our work in Noah’s Ark. We’re both trying to save animals that face extinction (Mie絕). I certainly appreciate their effort and there’s a lot we can learn from what they are attempting to do. It’s a research that is very much needed.” 64. From the passage we know that _______.(Si個選項可 能存在的錯誤是什么) A. Kraemer and his team have succeeded in cloning a dog 23 B. scientists try to implant a panda’s egg into a rabbit C. Kraemer will work with Chinese scientists in clone researches D. about two thousand of species will probably die out in a century C Copying is also suggested as a means by which parents can have the child of their dreams. Couples might choose to have a copy of a film star, baseball player or scientist, depending on their interest. But because personality is only partly the result of genetic inheritance (Ji因遺傳), conflicts would be sure to come up if the cloned child failed to develop the same interests as the original. What if the copy of Einstein shows no interest in science? Or the baseball player turns to acting? Success also depends upon fortune. What if the child does not live up to the hopes and dreams of the parents simply because of bad luck? 65. What, in the author’s opinion, affects the success of parents’ dreams?(Ru何將題目的關鍵信息提取出來) A. The efforts of the parents.B. The cloned child’s personality. C. The cloned child’s interest in Einstein. D. The cloned 24 child’s natural talent. A When traveling, it’s important to learn about the customs and etiquette of the global village. What we consider polite behavior at home isn't always accepted outside our borders. Etiquette of Gift Giving Gift giving should be a happy, positive experience. When selecting a present for someone in Netherlands, don't purchase fancy kitchen knives or scissors. Giving sharp, pointy objects as gifts is considered unlucky. Be careful when presenting flowers to a friend or a business partner in Russia. Yellow blooms suggest cheat or a relationship break up. Traditionally, red carnations are placed on the tombs of the dead. Writing cards or notes while visiting South Korea, be mindful of your pen's ink color. Writing a person's name in red ink traditionally suggests that the person has passed away,an important point to remember when giving a birthday card. Eating Customs Being early or on time is viewed as being rude, too eager or even greedy in Venezuela. If you are invited to 25 someone's home for a meal, it's recommended that you arrive 10 minutes later than the requested time. When having a meal in Egypt, don’t use the salt shaker (Yan 瓶). It's insulting to your host to spread salt on your food, which means that you find the meal terrible. Japan is a very polite nation, and their fondness for etiquette extends to the use of chopsticks. According to Japanese custom, if you're in the middle of eating, use the opposite end of your chopsticks to secure food from a shared plate. When doing business in Turkey, it’s the custom for your host to pay for your meal. Requests to split the bill won’t be accepted. If you would like to pay your fair share, Turks recommend inviting your host to a follow-up meal. 56. Which of the following is true according to the passage? A. Giving a fancy kitchen knife to a friend from Russia is a good choice. B. You can use blue ink to write notes to your friend from South Korea. C. Dining with Japanese, one can use either end of the chopsticks to get food from shared plates. D. Invited to a meal, one should arrive earlier to show 26 respect for the host. B Recently the barbican museum in London held an exhibition called the rain room. During the time this exhibition was open, my twitter stream was filled with photos of people standing in the rain room, accompanied by the caption “rain room@ the barbican!” and a location attachment to prove that they were indeed in the rain room. This got me thinking. What were people actually saying by Tweeting about their visit? I think all they were doing was fulfilling the obligation that we have to share. Not sharing in the sense of treasuring a moment with people close to us, but sharing in the sense of “tell the world that I am doing a thing”. It’s not sharing; it’s showing off. When we log in to Facebook or Twitter we see an infinitely updating stream of people enjoying themselves. It’s not real life, because people only post about the good things whereas all the dull or deep stuff doesn’t get mentioned. But despite this obvious fact, it subconsciously makes us feel like everyone is having a better time than us. This is the curse of our age. We walk around with the tools 27 to capture extensive data about our surroundings and transmit them in real-time to every friend we’ve made. We end up with a reduced understanding of reality because we’ re more concerned about choosing a good Instagram filter(Guo濾器) for our meal than how it tastes. I don’t think that it’s inherently wrong to want to keep the world updated about that you’re doing. But when you go through life robotically posting about everything you do, you’re not a human being. You’re just a prism that takes bits of light and sound and channels them into the cloud. The key thing to remember is that you are not eiching your experiences by sharing them online; you are detracting from them because all your efforts are focused on making the look attractive to other people. Once you stop seeing things through the eyes of the people following you on Twitter or Facebook or Instagram, you can make your experiences significant, because you were there and you saw the sights and smelled the smells and heard the sounds, not snapped a photo of it through a half-inch camera lens. 60. It seems to the author that ___________. A. Facebook or Twitter is a good place where we share personal experience 28 B. people seldom show depressing stuff on the social networking websites C. most of people tend to show off that they are having a better time than others D. sharing experience on the social networking websites is not real life C “Tear them apart!” “Kill the fool!” “Murder the referee!” These are common remarks one may hear at various sporting events. At the time they are made, they may seem innocent enough. But let's not kid ourselves. They have been known to influence behavior in such a way as to lead to real violence. Books have been written about the way words affect us. It has been shown that words having certain meanings may cause us to react in ways quite foreign to what we consider to be our usual behavior. I see the term “opponent” as one of those words. Perhaps the time has come to delete it from sports terms. The dictionary meaning of the term “opponent” is “enemy”, or “one who opposes your interests.” Thus, when a player meets an opponent, he or she may tend to treat that opponent as an enemy. I remember an incident in a handball 29 game when a referee refused a player's request for a time out for a glove change because he did not consider them wet enough. The player went away to rub his gloves across his wet T-shirt and then screamed, “Are they wet enough now?” In the heat of battle, players have been observed to throw themselves across the court without considering the effect that such a move might have on anyone in their way. I have also witnessed a player reacting to his opponent's intentional and illegal blocking by hitting him with the ball as hard as he could during the course of play. Off the court, they are good friends. Does that make any sense? It certainly gives proof of a court attitude which differs from normal behavior. Therefore, I believe it is time we elevated(Ti搜狐彩票注册升)the game to the level where it belongs, setting an example to the rest of the sporting world. Replacing the term “opponent” with “associate” could be a good way to start. The dictionary meaning of the term “associate” is “friend” or “companion.” You may soon see and possibly feel the difference in your reaction to the term “associate” rather than “opponent”( 30 62. What did the handball player do when he was not allowed to change his gloves? A. He refused to continue the game. B. He angrily hit the referee with a ball. C. He insisted that the referee was unfair. D. He wet his gloves by rubbing them across his T-shirt. 63. According to the passage, players in a game may ______. A. throw the ball at the opponent illegally blocking their way B. keep on screaming and shouting throughout the game C. 1ie down on the ground as an act of protection D. kick the ball across the court with force C 31